Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major human pathogen associated with a broad spectrum of clinical illnesses including:
- acute infections such as:
- skin and soft tissue infections, such as impetigo, cellulitis, and erysipelas
- severe systemic infections, such as toxic shock syndrome
- nonsuppurative complications such as:
- acute rheumatic fever
- poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
- More than 200 serotypes or genotypes exist which, to a limited extent, correlate with disease manifestation.
- Transmission is typically person to person via respiratory droplets or direct skin contact.
Diagnosis is typically based on isolation of the organism from:
- throat culture, the gold standard for diagnosis of acute pharyngitis, or
- a normally sterile site for diagnosis of invasive disease
- Group A Streptococcus (GAS)) remains widely susceptible to penicillin, which is the treatment of choice for most illnesses.
- In severe toxin-mediated diseases, such as GAS necrotizing fasciitis or toxic shock syndrome:
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